A workstation can either be designed for tasks to be performed while standing, sit-stand or sitting. Employee is required to stand while working due to one or more situations listed below:
·    The workstation provides no or limited knee or foot clearance and therefore the task cannot be performed in a seated position.
·    Extended reaches are beyond an arm length (above, forward or below) where the upper part of the body has to bend forward to reach.
·    Frequent distance movements and if the operator is sitting, he/she may require to stand up.
·    Downward force to be exerted by the hand is more than 4.0 kg or the object weight handle is more than 4.0 kg.
·    Reduce visibility.

In addition to the above situations, the type of tasks may determine whether a particular workstation is for standing or not. There are four types of task, namely:

1. Precision
2. Light
3. Medium, and
4. Heavy

The medium and heavy task should be done in standing position because a significant amount of force is required to be exerted by the body. In most occasions, only a small amount of force may be exerted while in sitting position. To exert greater forces, the body must use the bigger muscles of the body that are located on the shoulders, back and thighs. A standing posture allows greater flexibility to exert such force.

Precision tasks are usually performed in sitting position because the amount of forces for the body to exert is small. The parts of the body commonly involved are the forearm and hand. Precision work may be performed in standing position but for shorter period, preferably less than
10 minutes. For longer periods, precision and light duty tasks should be done in sitting position to avoid fatigue to develop.

Light duty tasks sometimes may be performed in the seated or standing postures. The tendency is to carry out in sitting position, but with occasional standing requirements.

For tasks where continuous foot control is required, the work should be performed in the seated postures (e.g. driving a car). Intermittent foot control is allowed in the standing work position (e.g. handling impact equipment).

Source: Guidelines on Occupational Safety and Health for Standing at Work

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